Natural hazards in Iceland arise through endogenous and exogenous processes and the constant interactions between these natural forces.
Endogenousforces originate within the Earth. Volcanism and earthquakes occur as a result of endogenous forces. Examples of volcanic hazards include lava flows, tephra and ash fall, lahars, glacial outburst floods (jökulhlaups), and poisonous gases emitted during volcanic eruptions.
Exogenous forces are external to the Earth. Exogenous processes are mainly powered by solar energy, together with Earth’s own gravitational energy. Natural hazards arising from exogenous processes are directly or indirectly caused by the interactions of various climatic factors such as temperature, precipitation and winds. Examples include storms, erosion, and flooding, as well as rapid mass wasting events such as landslides and avalanches, which can be extremely dangerous and destructive.